Salad greens


سلاد Lettuce
Lactuca (Lactu'ca) sativa
Black Seeded Simpson, Grand Rapids, green Ice, green Wave, Royal Oak Leaf, Red Sails, Salad Bowl, Red Salad Bowl, Slo Bolt, Looseleaf lettuce, Bunching lettuce, Cutting lettuce, Salad-bowl lettuce, Lechuga, Matchless, Cos


It belongs to Asteraceae family and genus Lactuca. Lettuce is grown as a leaf vegetable. In Western countries, it is eaten cold and raw, in salads, hamburgers and several other dishes. In some places, lettuce is eaten cooked and use of the stem are as important as use of the leaf.

Butterhead, also called Boston or Bibb; it has a buttery texture. Butterhead cultivars are most popular in Europe.
Chinese lettuce(Stem Lettuce, Asparagus Lettuce , Celtuce, Celery lettuce, Asparagus lettuce) types generally have long, sword-shaped, non-head-forming leaves, with a bitter and robust flavour unlike Western types, appropriate for use in stir-fried dishes and stews.
Crisphead, (Ithaca, Great Lakes, Premier Great Lakes, Minetto (miniature), Head lettuce ,Cabbage lettuce , Valdor (cold-resistant), Tom Thumb (miniature), Red Grenoble, Iceberg), which form tight, dense heads that resemble cabbage. They are generally the mildest of the lettuces, valued more for their crunchy texture than for flavour.
Looseleaf, with tender, delicate, and mildly flavoured leaves.
Romaine, also called Parris Island, Valmaine, Ballon, Cos, is a head-forming type with elongated leaves. The thick ribs, especially on the older outer leaves, have a milky fluid which is unpleasant, so they should not be used. Neither should the leaf-tips because those can be bitter.
Summer Crisp, also called Batavian, which form moderately dense heads with a crunchy texture.
Some lettuces (especially iceberg) have been specifically bred to remove the bitterness from their leaves. These lettuces have a high water content with very little nutrient value. The more bitter lettuces and the ones with pigmented leaves contain antioxidants.

Asteraceae کی نوع Lactuca سے ہے۔ مخلوط خاندان کی سبزی جس کے پتے کھائے جاتے ہیں اور سلاد کے طور پر استعمال ہوتے ہیں۔ انہیں ہم چھ اقسام میں بانٹتے ہیں۔ کچھ ہلکے سبز اور کچھ گہرے سبز ہیں یا سرخی مائل اودے ۔

تارامیرا، مولئی ، تارا Arugula (uh-REW-guh-luh)
Eruca (Eru'ca) sativa, Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Diplotaxis muralis
Rocket , Arrugola , Rugula , Rocket salad , Italian cress , Rucola , Mediterranean garden rocket, Rocket, Rugola, Roquette

It is a type of herb, and although often mistaken for a sort of lettuce, being a member of the mustard family. Scientifically, arugula consists of three species: Eruca sativa, Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Diplotaxis muralis. Wild rocket, with smaller, more peppery leaves, and wide leaved or cultivated rocket, with a less pronounced taste.Rocket Salad, Roquette, Rucola and Rugula. It has deeply toothed leaves and looks a bit like slender, short-topped turnip greens. Its strong scent and flavor resemble peanuts. This plant belongs to the Mustard family, Cruciferae. Eruca sativa and varieties are usually sold by species name or as Roquette.

اس کا ذائقہ تلخ اور کچھ مرچ جیسا ہے۔ اس کی جگہ چھوٹے چھوٹے سرسوں کے پتے استعمال کرلیں۔

ترفیل، برسیم ، نفل، سہ برگہ  Trefoil


سہ گوشہ پتوں والا پودا جس میں سفید، زرد اورسرخ سفید پھول لگتے ہیں۔

Oakleaf  lettuce


یہ سرخ اور سبز دو رنگوں میں ہوتا ہے۔

Looseleaf  lettuce
Lactuca (Lactu'ca) sativa
Black Seeded Simpson, Grand Rapids, green Ice, green Wave, Royal Oak Leaf, Red Sails (AAS), Salad Bowl (AAS), Red Salad Bowl, Slo Bolt,  Bunching lettuce , Cutting lettuce , Salad-bowl lettuce , Lechuga,Matchless


تنے والے سلاد   Chinese Lettuce
Lactuca (Lactu'ca) sativa
Stem Lettuce, Asparagus Lettuce , Celtuce


Crisphead Lettuce
Lactuca (Lactu'ca) sativa
Ithaca, Great Lakes, Premier Great Lakes, Minetto (miniature), Head lettuce , Cabbage lettuce ,Valdor (cold-resistant), Tom Thumb (miniature), Red Grenoble, Iceberg

اسے فریج میں کافی دن رکھا جا سکتا ہے۔

Romaine Lettuce
Lactuca (Lactu,ca) sativa
Parris Island, Valmaine, Ballon ,Cos

اسے آپ فریج میں زیادہ دنوں تک رکھ سکتے ہیں۔عام طور پر سبز ہی ملتا ہے لیکن کبھی کبھی سرخ بھی مل جاتا ہے۔

کاہو، ہالم ، ترہ تیزک ، جرجار ، شاہی، چنسُر   Cress

Garden cress, Curly cress,  Winter cress, Rock cress , Land cress , (آبی شاہی، جرجیر) Watercress


Cress, common name for a number of herbs, most of which are used as garnishings or in salads for their pungent flavor or as leaf vegetables including Watercress, Land cress, Rock cress, Winter cress, Garden cress

سلاد کے طور پر استعمال ہونے والے مختلف پودوں میں سے کوئی۔ یہ مرچ کے ذائقہ والا ہے اور سوپ یا سینڈوچ میں اکثر استعمال ہوتا ہے۔یہ جلد خراب ہو جاتا ہے۔

Land cress
Barbarea verna, Barbarea praecox, Lepidum nativum
Belle Isle cress, Early yellowrocket, American cress, Dryland cress, Upland cress, Cassabully, Creasy salad, Early winter cress,  American watercress


It is a biennial herb in the family Brassicaceae and genus Barbarea. It is native to Southwestern Europe. Land cress has been cultivated as a leaf vegetable. Land cress is considered a satisfactory substitute for watercress. It can be used in sandwiches, or salads.

یہ خاندان Brassicaceae  کی نوع Barbarea سے ہے۔اسے سینڈوچ میں ڈال سکتے ہیں سلاد میں کاٹیں یا پالک کی طرح پکا سکتے ہیں۔

سلادآبی، کاہو، آبی شاہی، پیریا ہالم ، جر جیر   Water cress
Nasturtium officinale
Shahat, Barbeen


It belongs to Brassicaceae family and genus Nasturtium. It is native from Europe to central Asia. The stems of watercress are floating and the leaves are pinnately compound. The leaves of this plant have a peppery taste and are used in salads and as garnishes. After flower buds bloom, the leaves become extremely pungent and can no longer be used as food. There are green-leaved, large brown-leaved and small brown-leaved varieties.

یہ cabbage خاندان Brassicaceae کی نوع  Nasturtium سے ہے۔ یہ بہتے ہوۓ صاف پانی میں لگتا ہے ، اس میں تیز ذائقہ دار پتے لگتے ہیں جو سلاد اور آرایش طعام کے طور پر استعمال ہوتے ہیں۔اس کے پتے ، بیج اور پھول استعمال ہوتے ہیں۔

Winter cress
Barbarea balcana , Barbarea verna , Barbarea vulgaris, Barbarea intermedia , Barbarea lepuznica , Barbarea orthoceras , Barbarea rupicola , Barbarea sicula , Barbarea stricta , Barbarea taiwaniana  ,Barbarea longirostris ,  Barbarea bosniaca , Barbarea bracteosa , Barbarea conferta , Barbarea hongii
Yellow rocket , Barbarea

Barbarea is a genus of about 22 species of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, southern Europe and southwest Asia.

یہ cabbage خاندان Brassicaceae  کی نوع  Barbarea سے ہے۔

ہالم ، ہالیون ، کرف ، شاہی ، ترکاری    Garden cress  
Lepidium sativum L.variety crispum
Garden pepper cress, Pepper grass , Pepperwort, Curled Cress


It is a fast-growing, edible plant botanically related to watercress and mustard and sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. They have a pungent taste and are used in small amounts in salads or cold stuffings, or as a garnish. It makes a suitable substitute for watercress in the spring and autumn. It belongs to Brassicaceae family and genus Lepidium.

یہ cabbage خاندان Brassicaceae  کی نوع   Lepidium سے ہے۔تعلق اس کا وسطی ایشیا سے ہے۔پتے سلاد کے طور پر استعمال ہوتے ہیں۔

Rock cress
Arabis alpina  ,Arabis brownii , Arabis glabra  ,Arabis hirsuta  ,Arabis recta ,   Arabis scabra  ,Arabis turrita
Arabis, Alpine Rockcress , Fringed Rockcress , Tower Rustard ,Hairy Rockcress, Annual Rockcress , Bristol Rockcress , Tower Rockcress


It belongs to Brassicaceae (subfamily Brassicoideae) family and genus Arabis.

یہ cabbage خاندان Brassicaceae  کی نوع  Arabis سے ہے۔

بیخ کاسنی   Chicory
Cichorium intybus, Cichorium endivia
French endive , Witloof chicory , Blanching chicory, Dutch chicory, Belgian endive, green-leaved blanching chicory , Belgium chicory, Radicchio , Puntarelle , Witloof, Escarole


It belongs to Asteraceae family and genus Cichorium. There are two cultivated species, and four to six wild species.
Common Chicory (Cichorium intybus) -It is grown for its leafy shoots known as Witloof. This plant resembles Cos or Romaine Lettuce in its growth, being upright in nature. The heads are erect, loosely wrapped, and dark green. The foliage has a slightly bitter taste. Italian Chicory has deeply notched leaves and long stems.Radicchio is a variety of Leaf Chicory that resembles a small red cabbage. It forms a compact head of dark red or magenta leaves, which are veined in white. The roots are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute. Varieties-- Sugarhat and Catalogna (an Italian variety), Belgian Endive, Witloof Chicory, Magdeburg.
Frisée has finely cut, frizzy leaves.
Belgian endive (French endive,Witloof, Chicon) It is grown completely underground or indoors in the absence of sunlight, a process that prevents the leaves from turning green and opening up (etiolation). It is often sold wrapped in blue paper to protect it from the light’s harm and preserve its delicate flavor and pale coloring. Its smooth, creamy white leaves may be served stuffed, baked or simply cut raw. Slightly bitter, the whiter the leaf, the less bitter the taste.
Puntarelle (سفید برگ کاسنی) has narrow stems and leaves.

ہندبا ، کاسنی    Endive
Cichorium endivia
True Endive,  Witloof chicory , Blanching chicory, Dutch chicory,  green-leaved blanching chicory , Witloof


Escarole or Curly Endive , they are generally the same thing, but Endive has cut and curled foliage and Escarole has smooth, wide leaves. The leaves are chewier and more substantial than those of lettuce. Curly endive has green, rimmed, curly outer leaves. Escarole has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties.

یہ خاندان Asteraceae  کی نوع Cichorium  سے ہے۔ اس کی تین اقسام ہیں   Curly endive ، Escarole اور Frisée  ۔ اس کا ذائقہ تھوڑا تلخ ہے۔اس کے پتے تو سلاد کے طور پر استعمال ہوتے ہیں جبکہ اس کی موٹی جڑ خشک کر کے بھون لی جاتی ہے اور اسے پیسنے کے بعد کافی میں ملا کر یا کافی کے نعم البدل کی طور پر استعمال کیا جاتا ہے۔اس کی جگہ سلاد آبی (watercress) استعمال کرلیں۔

Radicchio (rah-DEEK-ee-oh )
Cichorium intybus
Red chicory , red-2leafed chicory , Red Italian chicory , Chioggia , Blue sailors, Succory, Coffeeweed.


It is a leaf chicory, sometimes known as Italian chicory. It is grown as a leaf vegetable which usually has white-veined red leaves. It has a bitter and spicy taste, which mellows when it is grilled or roasted. It can also be used to add color and zest to salads. Also called Red chicory , red-2leafed chicory , Red Italian chicory , Chioggia

خوبصورت رنگ مگر ذائقہ کسیلا ہے۔دوسرے سبز سلاد کے ساتھ کاٹ کر پلیٹ میں سجائیں تو آنکھ کو بہت بھلا لگتا ہے۔

Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa
Japanese greens , Spider mustard , Mizuna , Rapini , Turnip , Chinese cabbage , Flowering cabbage , Aburana , Bok choy


یہ خاندان Brassicaceae  کی نوع  Brassica  سے ہے۔اس کی جگہ سرسوں کے چھوٹے پتے استعمال کرلیں۔

Lollo rosso
Lactuca sativa


اس کے پتوں کے سرے سرخ ہوتے ہیں۔

Red mustard


مرچ کے اس ذائقہ والے سلاد کو آپ پکا بھی سکتے ہیں۔

Tat soi
Spoon cabbage


ان کی شکل چمچ سے ملتی ہے۔

شرینک    Corn salad
Valerianella locusta, Valerianella olitoria
Mache , Lamb's lettuce , Lamb's tongue , Field lettuce , Field salad , Fetticus


These hardy plants are grown in gardens and are used in making salads. This plant grows wild in Europe.It belongs to Valerianaceae family and genus Valerianella.

گل ساگ ، گل قاصدی ، ککروندا ،رسوک، دودل، کنپھول    Dandelions
Taraxacum officinale , Taraxacum vulgare , Taraxacum albidum , Taraxacum japonicum , Taraxacum laevigatum , Taraxacum erythrospermum
Dandelion greens, Swine's Snout, Priest's Crown , Telltime, Thick-leaved , Common Dandelion , White-flowering Japanese dandelion , red-2seeded Dandelion


It belongs to Asteraceae family and genus Taraxacum. The dandelion is native to Europe and Asia, and has spread to many other places. The plant can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads. The young Dandelion leaves, especially if blanched, can be used to make salads either alone or along with other salad greens; older leaves will be too bitter. The young leaves can also be boiled as a vegetable. Dandelion root is a registered drug in Canada, sold as a diuretic.

یہ خاندان Asteraceae  کی نوع  Taraxacum سے ہے۔اس کے چھوٹے پتے کچے بھی کھاۓ جاتے ہیں۔ اس کا ذائقہ کچھ تلخ سا ہے۔

گل لادن ، کاہو ، جرجیر   Nasturtium
Tropaeolum majus L. ,Tropaeolum majus, Tropaeolum peregrinum , Tropaeolum speciosum , Tropaeolum polyphyllum
Indian cress


It is native to South America and Central America. The flowers can be added to salads for an exotic look and taste; they have a slightly peppery taste reminiscent of Watercress. The unripe seeds, when pickled, have been used as a substitute for capers.It belongs to Tropaeolaceae and genus Tropaeolum.

یہ خاندان Tropaeolaceae کی نوع    Tropaeolum سے ہے۔ اس کے کچے پھل کا اچار بھی ڈالا جاتا ہے۔ اس کا تعلق شمالی امریکہ سے ہے۔پتے سلاد کے طور پر استعمال ہوتے ہیں۔

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