Wheat

گندم

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Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a grass that is cultivated worldwide. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads; cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and for fermentation to make beer, alcohol. The husk of the grain, separated when milling white flour, is bran. It is belongs to Poaceae family and genus Triticum.

اناج میں یہ سب سے زیادہ استعمال ہونے والا اناج گندم ہے۔ اس کی خوشبو بہت اچھی  ہے۔ اسے سالم کی بجاۓ پیس کے زیادہ استعمال کیا جاتا ہے شائد کوئی گھر ایسا نہ ہو جہاں گندم کا استعمال نا ہوتا ہو۔

گندم ، گیہوں Common Wheat
 Triticum compactum,  Triticum sphaerococcum,  Triticum aestivum

Common wheat is by far the most important wheat species in cultivation today. It belongs Poaceae family and genus Triticum.

یہ Poaceae  کی نوع  Triticum سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔

Hard Red Spring wheat berries :   Hard, brownish, high protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat.
Hard Red Winter wheat berries :   Hard, brownish, mellow high protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts.

سال میں اس کی دو فصلیں (winter, spring) ہوتی ہیں۔  یہ پکنے میں بہت وقت لیتی ہے۔

Soft Red Winter wheat berries :   Soft, low protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake Flour, for example, is made from soft red winter wheat.

Hard White wheat berries :    Hard, light colored, opaque, chalky, medium protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas.

Soft White wheat berries :    Soft, light colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat.

Durum wheat berries
Triticum durum
Macaroni wheat

Itis the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. Durum is the hardest of all wheats. Very hard, translucent, light colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta.

یہ Poaceae کی نوع  Triticum سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔ یہ وہ قسم ہے جس کے آٹے سے سویاں تیار کرتے ہیں۔

Einkorn wheat
Triticum monococcum , Triticum boeoticum

Einkorn wheat can refer either to the wild species of wheat, or to the domesticated form. Einkorn is a diploid species of hulled wheat, with tough glumes ('husk') that tightly enclose the grains. The cultivated form is similar to the wild, except that the ear stays intact when ripe and the seeds are larger.

یہ Poaceae  کی نوع  Triticum سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔

Emmer wheat
Triticum dicoccon
Farro

It was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. It was widely cultivated in the ancient world, but is now a relict crop in mountainous regions of Europe and Asia

یہ Poaceae  کی نوع  Triticum سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔

QK-77
Triticum polonicum , Triticum durum , Triticum turanicum, Triticum turgidum
Kamut®

Its official cultivar name is QK-77, and it is a protected variety registered with the Plant Variety Protection Office of the USDA under Plant Variety Protection Certificate 8900108.

مصر کے پرانے مقبروں سے چند گندم کے دانے ملے ، یہ فصل ان سے لی گئی ۔ یہ میٹھی خوشبو رکھتی ہے۔ اس میں پروٹین اورچیپ دار نائٹروجنی شے (gluten)  زیادہ ہے۔

رئی   Rye 
Secale cereale

Rye flour has a lower gluten content than wheat flour, and contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. t is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskies, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.

Spelt
Triticum spelta

Spelt was an important wheat species in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (T. aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta

یہ Poaceae  کی نوع  Triticum سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔

Triticale
X Triticosecale

یہ تلخہ  یا  رئی اور گندم کی  مخلوطُ الّنَسل ہے۔ اس میں پروٹین کافی ہوتی ہے۔

Bulgur (BUHL-guhr or BOOL-guhr)
Bulgur wheat , Ala , Birghil ,Bulgar , Bulghur , Burghal , Burghul

یہ سالم ملتے ہیں اور چھوٹے چھوٹے ٹکڑے کۓ ہوۓ بھی۔ انہیں بھگو کر بیک کیا ہوا ہوتا ہے اسی لۓ پکنے میں وقت کم لیتے ہیں۔ آپ خود بھی تیار کر سکتے ہیں ۔ ایک حصہ گندم دو حصے پانی میں ایک گھنٹہ ہلکی آنچ پر رہنے دیں پھر ان کو cookie sheet پر ڈال کر  اوون میں 225° F ایک گھنٹہ رکھیں۔ سالم رکھیں یا انہیں باریک ٹکڑوں میں توڑ لیں۔ 

دلیہ   Cracked wheat

گندم کے ٹکڑے کر دیۓ جاتے ہیں یوں گندم سے جلدی پک جاتا ہے۔

گندم کا آٹا    Wheat flour   

The vast majority of today's flour consumption is wheat flour.

All-purpose flour is a blended wheat flour with an intermediate gluten level which is marketed as an acceptable compromise for most household baking needs.

Whole-wheat flour is whole-grain wheat flour. Whole grain flour is made from the entire grain including bran, endosperm, and germ.

Bleached flour is flour that was subjected to flour bleaching agents in order to whiten it (freshly milled flour is yellowish) and give it more gluten-producing potential. Similar effect can be achieved by letting the flour slowly oxidize with oxygen in the air ("natural aging"); however this process is too slow to be commercially viable. Oxidizing agents are therefore employed, most commonly organic peroxides like acetone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, or chlorine.

Bromated flour is flour with a maturing agent added. The agent's role is to help with developing gluten, a role similar to the flour bleaching agents. Bromate is usually used. Other choices are phosphates, ascorbic acid, and malted barley. Bromated flour has been banned in some country.

Cake flour is a finely milled flour made from soft wheat. It has very low gluten content, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. The higher gluten content of other flours would make the cakes tough.

Graham flour is a special type of whole-wheat flour. The endosperm is finely ground, as in white flour, while the bran and germ are coarsely ground. Graham flour is uncommon outside of the USA. It is the basis of true graham crackers. Many graham crackers on the market are actually imitation grahams because they do not contain graham flour or even whole-wheat flour.

Pastry flour or cookie flour or cracker flour has slightly higher gluten content than cake flour, but lower than all-purpose flour. It is suitable for fine, light-textured pastries.

Self-rising or self-raising flour is "white" wheat flour that is sold premixed with chemical leavening agents. It was invented by Henry Jones. Typical ratios are:

   U.S. customary:
    one cup flour
    1 to 1 and half teaspoon baking powder
    a pinch to half teaspoon salt

   Metric:
    100 g flour
    3 g baking powder
    1 g or less salt

Durum flour is made of durum wheat. It has the highest protein content, and it is an important component of nearly all noodles and pastas. It is also commonly used to make Indian flatbreads.

White flour is made from the endosperm only.

A germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran.

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