گٹھلی والے پَھل , Stone Fruit 

Stone Fruit

گٹھلی والے پَھل

A drupe develops from an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries. The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, lignified stone (or pit) is derived from the ovary wall of the flower. Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed. These fruits are not drupes.

یہ درخت پر سے پکنے سے تھوڑے دن پہلے توڑ لۓ جاتے ہیں اور کمرے کے درجہ حرارت میں چند دن میں پک جاتے ہیں۔ یہ پھل گرمیوں میں ہوتے ہیں۔

آلوبخارا ، پلم      Plum
Prunus bokhariensis, Prunus cocomilia, Prunus consociiflora, Prunus domestica, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus salicina, Prunus simonii, Prunus pinosa,  Prunus alleghaniensis, Prunus americana, Prunus angustifolia, Prunus hortulana, Prunus maritima, Prunus mexicana, Prunus nigra, Prunus orthosepala, Prunus subcordata
American Plum (Prunus maritima), Canada Plum (Prunus nigra), American plum (Prunus americana), Sierra or Klamath plum (Prunus subcordata) Japanese plums (Prunus salicina)   

The fruits are oval or round having smooth, thin skin. The flesh may be purple, blue, red, greenE or yellow, also depending on the variety. Plum fruit is sweet, juicy and edible, plums may be eaten fresh, preserved in jellies or jams, dried as prunes, juiced, or fermented as a liqueur. Plums come from three different backgrounds (The subgenus is divided into three sections) : American, European, and Japanese.

Japanese plums (P. salicina) have sweet flesh that is somewhat tart near the pit. Japanese plums are usually clingstone, which means the flesh sticks to the pit.

European plums (P. domestica) are hardier than Japanese plums. European varieties include the late-season prune plums, which are great for drying and eating fresh, and the Gage types, small, greenEish fruits valued for their light sweetness. European plums are ordinarily freestone, which means the flesh easily separates from the stone, making canning easy.

American plums include the beach Plum (P. maritima), the Canada Plum (P. nigra), the American plum (P. americana), and the Sierra or Klamath plum (P. subcordata). The small plums of these trees vary in quality from one tree to another, but are delicious eaten fresh as well as in jellies, preserves, wines, and liqueurs.

یہ خاندان  Rosaceae  کی نوع  Prunus سے تعلق رکھتا ہے۔اس کی بہت سی اقسام ہیں، کچھ میٹھے ہیں تو کچھ  تلخ کٹھے ۔اس کا چھلکا چکنا ہوتا ہے اور گُٹھلی دار پھل ہے۔

آڑو ،   شفتالو   Peach , Nectarine 
Prunus persica , Prunus persica var. nucipersica (Nectarine)
Klara Mayer

Nectarines and Peaches are the same species, Nectarine is a variety of the Peach tree. They differ only by a single gene - Peaches have the gene and are fuzzy-skinned; Nectarines lack the gene and have smooth skin. It is native to China. The fruit is a drupe, with a single large seed encased in hard wood (called the "stone" or "pit"), yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a velvety skin that bruises easily. Nectarines are a bit smaller than peaches and some say they taste sweeter. The flesh of Nectarines is a little less melting than that of Peaches. Nectarines and Peaches are natives to China. It belongs to Rosaceae family and genus Prunus.

یہ گلاب (Rosaceae)  کے خاندان کی نوع   Prunus  سے تعلق رکھتا ہے اور چین کا مقامی ہے۔ یہ ایک موٹا تازہ گودے والا روئیں دار اور خوش  ذائقہ پھل ہے۔

خرمالوچہ  Pluot
Plumcot

It is a complex cross hybrid of plum and apricot. Pluots are noted for their sweetness (due to a very high sugar content) and for their intense flavor.

یہ آلوبخارا اورخوبانی کی مخلوطُ الّنَسل ہے۔

خوبانی ، خرمانی ، زرد آلو    Apricot
Prunus armeniaca , Armeniaca vulgaris

 

The Apricot is native to Asia. The fruit appears similar to a peach or nectarine, with a color ranging from yellow to orange and sometimes a red cast; its surface is smooth and nearly hairless. Apricots are stone fruit, so called because the lone seed is often called a "stone".

یہ خاندان Rosaceae  کی نوع    Prunus سے تعلق رکھتی ہے۔ یہ میٹھا پھل  ہے۔

گیلاس ،ولایتی مکو ، آلوبالو ، کاکنج ، شاہ دانہ   Cherry 
Prunus avium - sweet / Prunus cerasus - sour / Prunus emarginata - Bitter Cherry / Prunus serrulata - Japanese Cherry / Prunus mahaleb - Saint Lucie Cherry / Prunus pensylvanica - Pin Cherry
Bing cherries, Pie cherry , Tart cherry , Red cherry,  Montmorency, Morello, Early Richmond

Cherries are originally from Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and Persia. There are two kinds of Cherry trees - Sweet Cherries, which are cultivars of  P. avium, and Tart or Sour Cherries, which are cultivars of P. cerasus. Sweet Cherries have red then purplish-black or yellowish flesh. Sweet Cherries are best eaten fresh as their delicate flavors. Tart or Sour Cherries are the varieties used in jams, tarts, pies, etc., thus another common name is Pie Cherry. Any part of this decorative tree is harmful if eaten.

گلاب (Rosaceae) خاندان کی جنسِ بادام (Prunus) سے تعلق ہے۔ان کي ایک قسم میٹھی ، دوسری کھٹی اور تیسری تلخ یعنی کسیلی ہوتی ہے ۔ان کے علاوہ بھی اقسام ہیں۔

Aprium

An aprium is a fruit invented in the late 20th century. It is a complex cross hybrid of plum and apricot.

یہ خوبانی اور آلوبخارا کا مخلوطُ الّنَسل ہے۔

Donut peach
Saucer peach

 

یہ آڑو ہی جیسا ہے ، مگر اس کا گودا سفید ہوتا ہے ۔


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