Punjabi and Punjab  ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਤੇ ਪੰਜਾਬ

Punjabi Language

'Punjabi' (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ , पंजाबी , پنجابی), also spelled 'Panjabi', is a cultural region straddling the border between West Punjab (Pakistan) and East Punjab (India). History shows that this region, due to the influence of Persian language during the Mughal Period was named as Punjab due to the reason that it has five rivers namely, the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Sutlej, and the Beas. Punjabi is spoken by inhabitants of Punjab region (in Pakistan and India) and also some dialects of Punjabi are spoken in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, Kashmir and the suburban areas of Punjab.

George Abraham Grierson (1904-1928), a linguist , in his 24 volume Linguistic Survey of India done in1920 mentions that 1503 languages are spoken in India, and Punjabi is one of them. Is Punjabi an Indo-Aryan language or not like many other modern languages of South Asia. There are three different views on this which are as follows:

1) Sanskrit developed from the Vedic language. Spoken Sanskrit changed into Prakrit and Upbharnish which further gave birth to modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Punjabi, Sindhi etc. Therefore, most experts believe that Punjabi contains many words from both Vedic and Sanskrit.

2) The followers of the second theory also consider modern languages of the subcontinent as the Indo-Aryan languages with a difference that these languages directly emerged from the Vedic language. With the first theory raising serious questions, some experts connected modern languages of the subcontinent with the Vedic language. It may also be noted that Sanskrit does not share a common syntax with the modern languages of the subcontinent.

3) The third view takes it as a non-Aryan language. The scholars believe that Since "Rig Veda" was created in Punjab, the Vedic language gave birth to Punjabi and not Sanskrit. This group has carefully studied, questioned and analyzed writings and theories of earlier experts. They do not seem to be impressed by big scholarly names or reputation of the Pundits and the European experts. Instead they draw their own conclusions from all the evidence available. They take their guidance from a host of solid leads, such as, archaeological findings at Swan, Harappa, Sara-i-Khola, etc., migration of the Austric and the Dravidians into Punjab, the numerous references to non-Aryan tribes in the Rig Veda, the abundance of non-Aryan words in Vedic and Sanskrit literature and languages, etc. The syntax of modern languages of the subcontinent has no relationship with that of Sanskrit. All this has not been carefully studied before. [ Did the Punjabi language evolve from Sauraseni Apbharnsha (Shauraseni Apabhransha), which has the influence of earlier Prakrits ? ( details in Punjabi "Punjabi Philology - پنجابی لسانیات and Punjabi Origin - پنجابی دا پچھوکڑ), Various aspect of Urdu, Punjabi, regional languages and national integration].

It is also said that this language is being spoken in this region for centuries. Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century. Most of the material in this language originates from the 3rd to 10th centuries AD.  And its literature started developing tremendously since the time Muslims came to this part of the world.  According to the available record, the first Punjabi writer is Farid ud Din Ganj Shakar (Baba Farid 1173-1266).

Punjabi language has more than 70 dialects ( see Punjabi to Urdu Dictionary 2009 ) spoken in the different sub-regions of Punjab. Sikhs write this language in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari and Muslims in Urdu script (Punjabi Alphabet - Shahmukhi).

In Pakistan, the Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province, ie. Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sialkot, Jhelum and Gujrat. Lahore, the historic capital city of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of the total population of the city, and Islamabad, the Capital city of Pakistan, has 71% Native Punjabis of the total population. Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2.85% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and the shared state capital Chandigarh. It is one of the official languages of the state of Delhi and the second language of Haryana. Thus Indian Punjab is the Punjabi language state. Some of its major urban centers are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Patiala.

Lahnda , old Hindvi (Moors), Hindvi and Lanhda Lahori are taken as Punjabi by different universities; whereas, the actual Punjabi is Western Punjabi (Lahnda=Shahpur Doabi ) and Eastern Punjabi (Lahori=Majhi) . As mentioned by Insha in his book ' دریائے لطافت ' in 1802 Punjabi was used for these two Punjabis. This site will give detail on this Punjabi.

جی آیا نوں - اُردو
جی آیاں نوں

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دل و جان  وِچ  رہندائے  فساد میرے، جس دن دا اوہ آ  کے لَڑ گیا  اے
کَندا  دِل تے کر   گیا نام اپنا ، تھیوا  مُندری  دے  وَانگ  جَڑ  گیا   اے
پَھڑک  سَکدا  نئیں طائِر  رُوح  میرا، ایسا زلف  زنجیر  وِچ  گڑ  گیا   اے
کرم نئیں رہندادل نُوں چین میرے،خَبرےکس طرح دا منترپڑھ گیا اے


Zafar Rashid
27 Feb 2018, 00:11
mere veero tay sajnron, ay jehra jumla saday praa Zeeshan nay likhya ay " muskal baad asani " es da matlab mere khyal che ay nai ke pelaan muskal tay pher asani, balke es da matlab ay ke pelaan asani si tay pher mushkal aayee, jay men kuch ghalat haan tay sare prawaan toon guzarash he ke meri tashih farmawanr. Rabb rakha.

Punjabi tay saraiki dowen hi meryaan pasandeeda zubana nen.


puran sandhu
27 Feb 2018, 04:50
Good morning sir, i am learning SHAHMUKHI myself and trying to read all comments of this website,very nice,thanks.

puran sandhu
27 Feb 2018, 05:03
bhai sahib jee aslama lekim,i tried to learn shahmukhiand iam getting better now thanks for your efforts to promote shahmukhi by heart .

admin @ puran sandhu
27 Feb 2018, 05:14
پسند کرن دا شکریہ پورن سندھو جی۔

Usman FaLak
03 Mar 2018, 07:51
Kuj unj vi rahavan okhiyan san.
Kuj ghal vich guman da tuog vi si
Kuj shaher dy log vi zalam sen.
Kuj sanu maran da shok vi si..

Puran sandhu
07 Mar 2018, 09:18
Thank you very much sir, Icanread shahmukhi now but pl.explain about Fay quaf Ain and Gan. Thanks. Sandhu

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مسلمان عورت ، کسی غیر مسلم مرد سے شادی نہیں کر سکتی ۔ مسلمان مرد، اہل کتاب کی پاک دامن عورتوں سے شادی کر سکتے ہیں، شادی کی اجازت ہے حکم نہیں ، اسے اسلامی مملکت دینی یا ملّی مصالح کی خاطر عندالضرورت وقتی طور پر معطل کر سکتی ہے۔

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